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    Children During Adolescence [10 - 16 Years]
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of individuals within an ethnically homogeneous population reflects the, cumulative nutritional, hygienic, disease and stress experience12 .

The children in this study were also observed for appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. Boys were observed for appearance of pubic hair, axillary hair, change of voice and different stages of genitalia development. The girls were observed for appearance of axillary hair, pubic hair, onset of menarche and different stages of breast development. One of the constraints of this study was that the study was terminated when children were between 15 and 16 years of age and several children had not attained full sexual maturity. Among the secondary sexual characteristics studied, pubic hair was the first to appear in boys and 64 to 99 per cent of children from the study areas had attained it by 15 years of age. For girls also pubic hair appeared before axillary hair. The percentage of children who had attained each characteristic from ages 12 to 15 years, the mean age at appearance of these characteristics, the mean height and weight of these children at appearance are presented in tables 24 to 27 for boys and 31 to 33 for girls. The mean height and weight of children who had attained sexual characteristics was higher as compared to the mean height and weight of all children at that age point.

The mean age at stage II of genitalia development for boys varied between 10.7 to. 12.8 years, between 11.7 to 13.7 for stage III and 13.8 to 14.3 years for stage IV at various centres. Very few boys had attained stage V of genitalia development before the study was completed. The mean age at appearance of each stage of genitalia development, the mean weight and height at each stage are presented in tables 28 to 30.

Just as for genitalia development for boys, several girls had not reached stage V of breast development at the time of completion of this study. The mean age at attaining stage II, III, IV and V varied between centres from 11.3 to 12.3 years, from 12.3 to 13.2 years, from 13.3 to 14.1 years and 13.9 to 14.8 years respectively. The mean age at appearance of each stage of breast development, the mean weight and height at each stage are presented in tables 33 to 35.

Onset of menarche was reported in 16.9 to 70.1 per cent of girls by 15 years of age 1n different study areas. A difference of 4 to 6 kg. in mean weight and 4 to 7 cm. in , mean height was observed in the girls who had attained menarche and the total study sample at all age points. Similar relationship between weight, height and onset of menarche has been shown in other studies 13. Further, Indian children who were adopted by Swedish parents to a priveleged environment had shown height and weight at menarche similar to those in India 14. It is difficult to make

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