arrow  Longitudinal Study on Growth of Indian
    Children During Adolescence [10 - 16 Years]

Stage 2: Scrotum slightly enlarged, with skin reddened and changed in texture.

Stage 3: Penis slightly enlarged, mainly in length and a smaller increase in breadth. Scrotum further enlarged than in Stage 2.

Stage4: Penis further enlarged with growth in length and breadth and development of glans. Scrotum further enlarged than in Stage 3: scrotal skin darker than n earlier Stages

Stage 5: Genitalia adult in size and shape.

Breast development Stage in girls was rated as follows 2 :

Stage 1: Infantile Stage persists.
Stage 2:
Breast bud Stage, elevation of breast and papilla as small mound. Diameter of areola is increased.

Stage 3: Breast and areola both enlarged with a continuous rounded contour.

Stage 4: The areola and papilla are further enlarged and form a secondary mound projecting above the corpus of the breast.

Stage 5: Adult Stage with smooth rounded contour, the secondary mound present in Stage 4 having disappeared.

Skeletal Maturity

This component of the study was cross-sectional and was carried out by 3 centres viz. Vellore, Jabalpur and Delhi. The Tanner TW -2 method 3 was used for rating of skeletal maturity. X-ray of the left hand of the child was taken in such a manner that each child was exposed only once during the study period. For each child a total skeletal maturity score for the left hand and wrist was assigned by a radiologist as (1) RUS bone score (2) Carpal bone score and (3) TW -20 score.

Standardization Measures:

The anthropometry of somatic growth involves the subject, instrument and observer in an interactive situation that needs to be standardized. The individual is dynamic, constantly changing and cannot be remeasured after six months to check old measurements. All efforts were made to observe the children at pre-scheduled age points. All instruments were standardized. Adequate measures were taken to maintain uniformity in information generation and data collection. Data was recorded on uniform pre coded proformae at all centres, All research workers were given training at the same time at one place. Before initiating the actual data collection workshops were organized at Jabalpur

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