co-operation etc. They usually have the parents as models
to imitate. When they are frustrated, they show aggressive
behaviour. They usually have a desire to excel and hence rivalry
arises with peers or siblings. When they do not like adult
authority they show negativism. Usually children quarrel a
lot due to their self-centredness and they try to be bossy.
The co-operation with others is very less at this stage.
This is the 'Toy age'. The type of play is influenced by
sex and intelligence of the child. The child likes to play
with children in the neighbourhood. When alone, imaginery
playmates are a common characteristic. He identifies his own
sex and sex appropriate roles. Ability to understand thoughts
and emotions are quite accurate.
His interests surround mainly him and his possessions. He
likes to dress well because it attracts others. Mother plays
a more important role in the child's life than any other person.
Her attitude towards him and her treatment of him play major
roles in his personality development. He learns to think and
feel about himself as defined by others especially parents,
Chart of Milestones
||Turns to human voice, Beginning of social
||Shows interest in people, plays with toys,
kicking bouncing, reaching for his toes, watching his
fingers move very strong stimuli attract his attention.
||Smiles in response attracts other babies
with kicks and blows, differenciates smile and scolding
calling added to crying. Says 'da-da' 'ma-ma', reaches
out for objects.
||bouncing, headshaking, squirming, pulling
to a standing position.
||Attempts to imitate speech, gesture and
||Develops fear of strangers, crawling for
a toy, climbing, moving furniture. Drinks with cup, understands
spoken words. eg 'where is mother' etc.
||Runs away when frightened, listens to warnings
||Smiles at his own activities, play is solitary,
onlooker when other children are playing.
||Little social give and take play parallel
with other children, able to say three words or more,