ICMR
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  1. We have a better understanding of the role of ecological factors in child health, like poverty, maternal stress and emotional health, family stress, community resources and governmental policies.

  2. Cost-containment pressures make the use of home visitors attractive.

  3. Increased pressures from funding resources are encouraging programmes to demonstrate inter agency and inter disciplinary coordination and cooperation.

  4. There has been a renewed interest in issues of family and prevention. It is now clear that societal changes like increased mobility of families with decreased extended family and community supports, and increased participation of mothers in the labour-force have had major impact on families and their support systems. These changes contribute to interest in family support programmes that work with families to build strengths and prevent problems before they occur, supporting families across wide range of family forms and cultural settings and preventive, nonjudgemental support to all families.

  5. Role of social support in multi-component family services such as prenatal, intrapartum, new born and well-child care.

  6. Participation of interest in self-help programme in parenting and child health.

  7. Outcome in low birth weight and other neonates at high risks is influenced by ecological factors of home, family and community resources as well as quality of medical care and severity of original insult.

Early interventions in children

Early intervention encompasses a range of stimulations and training activities for infants and young children. The type of programme provided is designed to reduce the cumulative effects of handicap or deprivation in infancy and childhood. Thus, intervention may be aimed at motor or cognitive development or may be broadbased transdisciplinary therapies.

These interventions are targeted towards two major child groups (1) Those at environmental risks and (2) Those who are, or are presumed to be biologically impaired. Interventions for sociocultural deprivation have often taken a psychoeducational approach, focussing on intellectual, developmental and enhancement of parent-child relationships. Longitudinal studies have shown those interventions to be effective in preventing deficits.


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