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was felt to be not necessary (38.7%) and unawareness of such services (30.4%). Nine subjects (4.1%) did not utilise services for fear of surgery and 2 subjects had nobody to look after them and therefore failed to utilise the services. 57 subjects (26.3%) had no specific reasons for non-utilisation of ophthalmic services.

Of the 178 subjects who attended the eye camps, 92 (51.7%) were advised surgery. Of these, 66 (71.7%) underwent cataract surgery. Of these who underwent surgery, 82% (N = 54) benefited, while the rest (12) did not. The reason given for not being benefited in spite of surgery was the non-provision of glasses after the surgery. Of the 26, who were advised surgery but who did not undergo the reasons attributed by them for not submitting for surgery were: no one to look after them (50%), fear of surgery (57.7%), no need for a better eye sight in old age-'a stoic attitude' (7.7%). Glasses following cataract surgery we-re supplied to 44 patients (66.7%), while 22 others who were operated could not be supplied with the glasses.

Although the subjects with hearing defect were attended to, Hearing Aids could not be supplied owing to the prohibitive cost. Cases requiring Cancer therapy were referred to the Department of Oncology, Govt. Rajaji Hospital and two cases were referred to the Cancer Centre, Adayar, Madras. The Mobile Service Van of the Madurai Medical College visited the PHC twice a week and the subjects were attended to by the visiting hospital staff on referral by the project staff. The services of the ICMR T. B. Clinic, Govt. Rajaji Hospital and District Leprosy Programme at the PHC were utilised for intervention purpose. A weekly Geriatric Clinic was also functioning at the Centre for Advanced Research on 'Health and Behaviour', Govt. Rajaji Hospital, for the subjects to be reviewed by the project staff and for followup purposes. Such of those who were disabled or handicapped by various illnesses were able to pursue their original occupation mainly agriculture following intervention measures.

Economic Intervention

Among the 1910 registered in the study, 217 subjects (11.4%) were receiving the Old Age Pension (Rs. 351/- per month) and automatically the Noon Meals besides a set of clothes for wearing on Pongal and Independence days and a fixed quantity of paddy. This benefit was received by those, who satisfied the Governmental criteria. At least five subjects were offered guidance to get these benefits. Among the 843 subjects surveyed for sub-sample survey II, 121 (45%) were receiving the Old Age Pension of the Govt. of Tamil Nadu amongst 269 eligible for that. When interrogated about the measures of improvement of the existing economic support, 694 (82%) suggested modification and the revision of the eligibility criteria for the Od Age pension to cover larger population of the elderly. Three hundred and forty-nine (41%) suggested that suitable steps undertaken to make the elderly aware of the scheme and 497 (59%) pleaded for an increase In the amount of pension and the quantity of paddy/rice supplied to them. Only 1% of those surveyed subjects suggested that Governmental Loans be sanctioned for some sort of occupation for themselves (self-employment) while 2.5% requested for free shelter for those who needed housing. Rehabilitation measures consisted of supply of walking sticks and provision of spectacles following the cataract operation. Attempts were made to acquire hearing aids to the needy, but were not successful. Quite a number of adentulous subjects were encouraged to procure artificial dentures, but they were not willing.

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